Treatment of implants surface has a two-sided goal: firstly, modern technology allows to treat implants to remove any contaminant; this is essential in post-production stage, in fact after the industrial manufacturing there may be foreign particles or residues that must be eliminated to guarantee the product integrity. In addition, the second goal consists in the possibility to directly operate on the metal surface to enhance its features, particularly those regarding biological and osteointegrative purposes.
These processes, cleaning and enhancement, entail complex and delicate procedures because they have to satisfy two primary objectives, both having a chemical nature.
First of all, the decontamination process must not leave any residue onto the surface. Furthermore, materials being used must not have reacting properties when in contact with metal, because this may lead to unwanted changes or deformations.
In its 6 implant lines, B&B Dental prefers not to use methods involving sandblasting as it considers them to be excessively intense, risking to produce unwanted morphological changes on the metal surface. Besides, sandblasting is less controllable in comparison the specific two phased treatment B&B Dental developed.
In the first phase a Double Acid Etching treatment called BioActive is used to directly act on the topographic features of the implants. It uses Hydrofluoric and Hydrochloric acids to create a regular and controlled oxidation on the titanium surface. After the procedure, the texturized surface will display a micro-rugosity with the power to enhance its biological features in the post-surgical phase: micro-texturization stimulate new tissues cells adhesion, so they will more easily take root.
Besides, through this subtracting process, a wider titanium surface will be exposed and will be available for the new bone tissue to grow and develop.
Overall, this treatment increases bone regeneration and osteointegration:
(1) “the topography is known to affect the protein adsorption and cellular interaction with the biological environment, which influences the orientation, adhesion, migration, proliferation, growth, and differentiation of osteoblastic cells.”
The second treatment used by B&B Dental is called Argon bombing and it is employed to decontaminate the implant surface. This procedure aims at perfectly cleanse the implant so to avoid, in post-surgical stages, an immune response from peri-implant tissues and the wide range of complications this could cause.
Initially, Argon gas is placed in a white room and transformed into plasma. Progressively, using a specific machine, the implant surface is bombed at a high speed by heavy and pressurized Argon ions. By doing this, an accurate mechanical cleansing takes place, exploiting the impact with possible existing contaminants, which will be eliminated by friction without chemicals.
In addition, this noble gas will return a purer product. Grade 4 titanium, in fact, is an alloy of different metals: Argon is able to eliminate the superficial intercalation residues.
(2) “Argon plasma allows modification of the physiochemical and biological properties of treated surfaces, and therefore, their interaction with the environment.
Further, in addition to decontaminating, argon plasma plays an antibacterial role.”
Argon has the great power to activate and ionize the particles it makes contact with. By using this effect, Argon bombing increases the wetness of the treated surface showing then a greater liquid attraction capability. Cells occupied in the osteointegration process will be more easily catalysed towards the implant surface. This advantage is greatly usable in implantology, to encourage the adaptability of the implant in its location.
1 Velasco-Ortega E, Ortiz-García I, Jiménez-Guerra A, et al. Comparison between Sandblasted Acid-Etched and Oxidized Titanium Dental Implants: In Vivo Study. Int J Mol Sci. 2019;20(13):3267. Published 2019 Jul 3. doi:10.3390/ijms20133267.
2 María Rizo-Gorrita, Irene Luna-Oliva, María-Angeles Serrera-Figallo and Daniel Torres-Lagares, Superficial Characteristics of Titanium after Treatment of Chorreated Surface, Passive Acid, and Decontamination with Argon Plasma J. Funct, Biomater. 2018, 9, 71; doi:10.3390/jfb9040071.
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